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Admin /  Skapad: 29-3-07 / Bloggnummer: 300 / Visad 1259 gånger

Amerikansk fotboll

Introduction

In 1876 were Intercollegiate Football Association (IFA) founded and the rugby rules were for the first time used in the United States of America. In the decennium after that the “American Footballs father”, Walter Camp, a member of the IFA introduced some new rule changes that made the sport more special and unique and more unlike Rugby.

 

The Game

American Football is much rougher and bigger than ordinary soccer in the USA and it’s even a national sport there. It is so rough that there are about 10 players that die every year

The objectives of the game are to score more points than the opposing team and to do so a team must have better tactics and a good team spirit. The saying “A team never gets better than its worse player “really fits like a description of this team sport.

A game lasts for one hour that is divided into four fifteen minute quarters, between the second and the third quarters there is a fifteen minutes long break.

Each team often have about 48 players.

To score points the oval ball must be taken to the other side’s goal area. There are many different ways of scoring:

1.      Touchdown (TD): Is if a running back succeeds with passing the ball to a receiver who stands in the goal area and catches it or if the receiver after getting the pass manages to run into the goal area without getting tackled. A touchdown gives 6 points.

2.    If the ball flies into the goal area or a player carries it there it gives 2 points.

3.    The last way of making points is to kick the ball between the goalposts which are situated about 3 to 9metres up in the air and the goal is only 5 and a half metres wide. This type of goal is called field goal.

The defending team can also do points:

1.      By intercepting a pass or to pick up a fumble and then take the ball to the other team’s goal area without getting tackled, touchdown. A fumble is when the attacking team “happens” to drop or lose the ball and a defence player picks it up first.

2.    They can also tackle the man with the ball in his own goal area. It is called safety and gives two points.

But the main objective for the defence team is to stop the other team’s tries to do points by intercept their passes and blocking their way and tackle them. Every time the attacking team makes a goal or succeeds with getting the ball ten yards from where they started they get four new tries. In the last try it often happens that the attacking team does a “punt”. It is when they kick the ball as far as it goes to the other side because then they will start long away.

The players usually talks between the tries to discuss tactics and it is called “to huddle”.

There are two ways of transporting the ball, either by running or by passing:

Running

If the team decides to have a running back running, a good offence line is needed because they need to clear the path so the RB can run undisturbed. Without that even a good RB can look like an amateur.

Passing

Passing is a little risky because the competitors can intercept by catching the ball in the air, but if it all goes well the team can get at least four new tries easily.

The players

 
offensive strategy

The attacking team

 

End
Ends can be ball receivers or ball carriers, depending on the type of play used.

Tackle
They stop the defense from getting through the lines.

Guard
Protect the ball carrier, and prevent any defensive action.

Centre
The centre snaps the ball back to the quarterback, and blocks the opposing linesmen.

Quarterback
The quarterback advises the team what play to make in the huddle, and feeds the ball to the running backs.

Half back
Also known as a flanker. Pass receivers and also involved in running play. There can both be one or two of these depending on the type of play used.

Running back
Stands behind the other offensive players in the start, and collects the ball to run with it straight through or around the defense. There may be one or two depending on the type of play used. They must be fast enough to avoid getting hit.

The defensive team

defensive strategy

Cornerback
The cornerbacks protect the outside flanks against a running play and also cover the wide receivers on passing attempts.

Safety
Plays inside the defensive area as a last line of defense. They move around the secondary and provide support where it is needed the most.

Linebackers
The linebackers play right behind the linesmen and sometimes play forward on the scrimmage line to provide support, like if the offense is in a short yardage situation (close to the defensive goal line. The linebackers defend against offensive plays, like passing or rushing.

Defensive ends and defensive tackle
Positioned on the line of scrimmage. They try to stop the offensive ball carrier from breaking through the defensive line.

Officials

It is the referees that makes that the player follow the rules and it is a fast game and there are seven officials in action.

The referee, Umpire, Head lineman, Line judge, Field judge, Side judge, Back judge cooperates to follow all movements on the field.
The referee has overall control of the other officials. The referee is positioned behind the offensive team and makes all calls.

Equipment

The pitch
The size of the pitch is about 90metres long and 50 metres wide. The lines through the middle and along the edge of the pitch are about 5 metres long.

The playing surface can be grass or artificial materials. Grass is the more popular playing surface due to the slightly higher level of injuries on artificial surfaces.

At the end of each side of the pitch, there are two areas known as the end zones. These are about 9metres deep. At the edge of the end zones are the end lines. If the ball goes beyond here it is dead. On the back lines of the end zones are the goalposts.

The ball
The ball is oval shaped and pointed at each end. It weighs about 400 grammes and is about 28 centimetres long.

Most balls are made of pebbled leather, but some are made of pigskin.

Another small piece of equipment relating to the ball is the kicking tee, a small plastic item used to hold the ball at the kick-off.

The clothing
The game is rough and therefore players will have to wear protective clothing at all times. This includes:

NFL and Super bowl

NFL stands for the National Football League and it is the professional league of this sport and it has 28 teams, 14 in the National Football Conference (NFC) and 14 in the American Football Conference (AFC). The champions of the NFC and AFC meet every year since 1966 in a very, very big finale which is Super Bowl. The winner of that game can for a year be called for the world champions of American Football.

The first one was between Green bay and Kansas City and it was held in Los Angeles where Green bay won with 25 points difference.

This year New England won over Saint Louis with only 3 points.

It was the 37th Super Bowl and it is the most watched TV-coverage or program ever with about 140 million viewers. In fact, the ten most-watched programs in TV-history are all Super Bowls.

The arenas needs to be very big to host a game, this year’s was in New Orleans which has a seating capacity of circa 70000 people.

Sources

www.Superbowl.com

www.sportsrules.50g.com/americanfootball.htm

www.NFL.com

www.canit.se/~heart/football.html

Nationalencyklopedin (uppslagsverk)

Encarta 2001




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